Sunday, April 22, 2012
There are four words for rice namely : • Pad is growing rice plant(hence paddy fields). • Gabah is rice after harvesting. • Beras is uncooked grain. • Nasi is cooked rice. As Nasi goring( fried rice ) and nasi putih( plain rice).A rice field is called Sawah.The whole rice field has a farmer organization called “Subak”. The Subak as an organization of the farmers Wet Rice agriculture,especially as practiced in Bali,is far too complex and requires too much regulation,particularly in conditinating use of irrigation system,for one farmer to practice alone or even in conjunction with a few others.Consequently,a highly specialized farm of agricultural association has evolved over the centuries in Bali to coordinate the maximal usage of the environment for the growing of the wet rice .These irrigation cooperative,knows as “Subak” are responsible for the allocation of water resourse,and maintenance of irrigation networks,for coordinating planting and for insuring that all religious rituals to insure good harvests are performed. Subak organizations are usually comprised of all individuals owning land irrigated by a single dam and major canal.The water form a single subak dam may be divided intio dozens and even hundreds of channels to irrigate to terraced sawah.In determining the many issues involved in wet rice cultivation ( when to plant,who is responsible for cleaning and guarding canals,regulating water flow,etc) group votes are taken.Each subak members has one votes regardless of the size of his holding.Generally,all subak leaders are elected by group decision.Thus,for the entire peasant farmer’s expertise in using his environment for we rice,without the subak to coordinate activities it is unlikely that the sawah system could ever reached its current level of pervasiveness’ efficiency and productivity. Subak in Bali does not belong to the Banjar and has own leader.The people who become the Subak members are not always the same people who become the Banjar members.The Subak members are the oweners or the people who work on the rice field that getting water irrigation from the dams regulated by a Subak organization.Not all of the Subak members live in the same banjar.On the other hand,there could be a Banjar members who has many rice fields in different areas and get the water irrigation from the dams organized by several Subaks.Therefore this Banjar member will join himself in all of the Subak where his rice fields located. Subak irrigation sytem besides as an appropriate techonological sytem,but as a cultural sytem as well.This phenomenon indicate that basically subak irrigation. Sytem is a techonoligical sytem that has been develoved as a part of cultural society.Because subak sytem is viewed as a techonogical sytem,so this sytem has an ability to be transformed.Meanwhile limitation of the ability of subak irrigation sytem to overcome the extreme conditions,basically can be solved through the harmony and togetherness,based on the Tri Hita Karana ( THT) principle as basic of subak sytem.Furthermore,through inverse technique,it can be seen the ability of subak sytem,that can be transformed.And then,through Fuzzy Set Theory,it can be see the dominance or ranks of the all elements of subak sytem,which are alsi as a consideration on the transformation process.